Biodiversity refers to the variety of organisms found within a specified geographic region. It can be a measure of the health of a population, or ecosystem. The effects of development on biodiversity in the wildland-urban interface have yet to be scientifically validated.

It is accepted, though, that most threats to biodiversity arise from human activity. Habitat loss, or destruction, and the introduction of non-native, exotic species are two issues currently affecting biodiversity in the wildland-urban interface.