Timber Utilization Data

Timber Product Output Overview

Timber Products Output (TPO) surveys conducted by the U.S. Forest Service Inventory and Analysis (FIA), provide estimates of industrial uses of roundwood in a state. To estimate industrial uses of roundwood, all primary wood-using industries in a state are surveyed bi-annually. Primary wood-using industries include pulp mills, sawmills, veneer mills, composite panel mills (osb), and other industrial products mills. These mills convert roundwood products (saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, etc.) into primary wood products such as lumber, veneer or sheathing, poles and posts, and wood pulp.

TPO questionnaires are voluntary, but cooperation from all of the mills in a state will result in a comprehensive and accurate survey. All volumes reported by mills are held in strict confidentiality.

Mills are asked to provide the following data:

  • volume of roundwood received by product type, species and county of origin
  • volume of product produced
  • volume, type, and disposition of wood residues generated during processing

While FIA provides forest inventory data, TPO provides complementary mill utilization data. Used together these data sets are useful for forest and mill managers alike. TPO provides data on:

  • timber product drain by county
  • mill wood residue production and usage
  • harvesting levels and volumes of logging debris produced

TPO resource data can be analyzed on a county-level or region-wide basis to facilitate strategies for:

  • wood supply plans
  • mill expansions
  • new mill locations
  • bioenergy project development

Source: Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA), USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station


Timber Product Output in Georgia

Summary - PDF

Following are a few highlights about Georgia's industrial roundwood TPO for the period 1971 to 2009, as shown in Chart 1.

  • The highest levels of total and hardwood TPO were recorded in 1995, 1.3 billion and 291 million cubic feet, respectively.
  • The highest level of softwood TPO was recorded in 2007, 1.04 billion cubic feet.
  • Softwood TPO is the largest component of total TPO averaging 83% for the period
  • Between 2007 and 2009:
    • Softwood TPO declined -12.5% (129.74 million cubic feet or 4.53 million green tons)
    • Hardwood TPO declined -16% (27.39 million cubic feet or 1.03 million green tons)
    • The combined softwood and hardwood TPO declines equates to a loss of 305 truck loads per day of roundwood deliveries to mills for processing
Chart 1 - Georgia Timber Product Output, 1971-2009

Pulpwood and saw logs were the principal roundwood products in 2009, as shown in Chart 2. Combined output of these two products totaled 907 million cubic feet and accounted for 86% of the state’s total industrial roundwood output.

Chart 2 - Roundwood Production by Product Type, 2009


Timber Product Output Reports

Timber Product Output (TPO) reports provide information on the production of forest products and the amount of timber removals within Georgia. Data collection for TPO reports are performed by a coordinated effort of the U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory & Analysis (FIA) and the Georgia Forestry Commission's (GFC) Forest Utilization staff. Data is compiled by FIA and is available in three formats:

  1. Electronic PDF copies are available for download below:
    Georgia's Timber Industry - An Assessment of Timber Product Output and Use
  2. A limited number of printed copies are available by contacting a Utilization and Marketing staff professional.
  3. Timber product output and timber removal reports for specific groups of counties are available by querying the TPO website.

In addition to the Georgia TPO reports, the U.S. Forest Service Southern Research Station publishes south-wide TPO reports such as the following:


Timber Harvest Studies

FIA conducts logging utilization studies to relate TPO to inventory volume. This is done by visiting a cross-section of logging operations in a state to characterize the sites logged, trees cut, products taken, and residues left behind.

Georgia studies include:


Pulpwood Production Reports

Georgia's 2009 Pulpwood Production - Georgia Forestry Commission Fact Sheet

The U.S. Forest Service Southern Research Station publishes annual reports on southern pulpwood production. Links to a few of the most recent publications are available below: